Regularly, sugar is exracted from the sugar cane, but it can also be found in fruit, honey, maple suryp and many other places. Sugar is the main ingredient of most candy because of the way the human taste buds interpret the taste of sugar as sweet. Excess intake of sugar has been linked to obesity, type two diabetes and different types of tooth problems.
Brazil has the highest per capita intake of sugar in the world, while India has the largest per country intake of sugar in the world. The English word for sugar is believed to originate from the Arabic and Persian word shakar, however, the word did not go directly from these two languages to English, but is believed to have existed in French, Spanish and Italian previously.
The Arabic and Persian word for sugar is in itself also derived from the Sanskrit word sharkara. Non-scientifically, the word sugar only refers to sucrose, also known as table sugar or saccharose, a crystalline, white kind of disaccharide. Scientifically, sugar refers to any monosaccharide, a type of chemical compound, such as glucose, which stores chemical energy which biological cells later convert to other kinds of energy, or disaccharide, which has many properties similar to monosaccharide.
When used as a culinary additive, sugar gives a sweet taste to whatever dish it may be added to. However, there are also non-sugar alternatives, such as Acesulfame Potassium, for people who wish to lower their calory intake or diabetics who still wish to enjoy sweet food, these alternatives are known as sweetener or artifical sweetener.
There are a few different kinds of culinary sugars and they all have varied densities due to different particle size: 1. Brown sugar 1 cup ~ 195g 2. Granular sugar 1 cup ~ 200g 3. Powdered sugar 1 cup ~ 120g